“Writing, Mathematics, and Metacognition: Looking for Connections Through Students' Work in Mathematical Problem Solving”

By David K. Pugalee

Researched the connection between writing and the metacognitive categories studied by Garofalo and Lester (1985)

  • Assessing & understanding the problem
  • Comprehension strategies
  • Assessment of familiarity of the task
  • Initial and subsequent representation
  • Assessment of the level of difficulty and chance of success

  • “What will you do?”
  • Identifying goals and subgoals
  • How to find a solution
  • Drawing diagrams
  • Organizing data

  • “What did you do?”
  • Performing specific goals
  • Progress monitoring
  • Performing calculations
  • Subtotalling, solving equations, other manipulation of numbers
  • Redirecting efforts

  • “Does it make sense?”
  • Checking the reasonableness or accuracy of their work
  • Does not have to occur only at the end of a task
  • Not only checking computations but sense-making